40The relationships of cities with industry are processual. Historically, the primary mode of production up until the 18th century was artisanal manufacturing in individual households; therefore, manufacturing activities were closely integrated with other parts of everyday life, specifically residential and commercial activities. The merchants’ town that grew from trading goods and wholesale products became one of the most rapidly emerging patterns of urbanization in Western cultures. However, the industrial revolution spurred large-scale urbanization as new technologies enabled the adoption of water wheels, coal-fired steam power, and intercity railways, dramatically changingthe urban landscape.