The language standardization process tends to be a long one, and is much more comprehensive in its scope. In many ways the standardization process is a healthy sign that a language is vital, viable and meaningful for its speakers. For one thing, languages with a standardized variety tend to have a writing system based on a unified standard, which in turn opens up opportunities for literature, communication, and other cultural manifestations. The English language saw a huge increase in published work about “correct” grammar after mid-18th century, which led to a marked rise in prescriptivist attitudes. Once the English language was codified, it was ready for defenders of its valor to emerge: it was during this time period that the “complaint tradition” began in earnest. In today’s world, language critics decry the effect of new technologies on language—for example, how texting applications and messaging are destroying punctuation and causing users to violate basic rules of English.