This chapter provides an overview of the meaning of reproduction, from prehistoric figurines to contemporary theories of genetic replication. It begins with the remarkable array of prehistoric figurines of obviously reproductive women that some argue indicate a veneration of reproduction as female. The significantly different early theories of reproduction from ancient Greece follow where a connection between coitus and birth is made and a gendered hierarchy of reproductive roles is established. An overview follows indicating how this sexist framework persisted for 1,200 years up to the Scientific Revolution. Next come rapid theoretical developments that spell out specific roles for sperm and egg cells, reproductive hormones and, by the mid-20th century, genes. Despite important steps forward in empirical method that reveal essential contributions from both sexes in the science of human reproduction, gender discrimination lingers. The chapter ends with the question of replication as the latest reproductive theory and perhaps a new method of reproduction.