This introductory chapter explains the challenges to human rights that are central to the book: first, the challenge of whether a sincere commitment to human rights is possible in the face of global inequality and, second, the challenge of how to duly include future people in human rights. Third, the chapter explains the question, which is also central to the book and concerned with moving to practice, of how to actually motivate people worldwide to behave in accordance with human rights. It is observed that the three issues just mentioned have received relatively little attention, but urgently need to be addressed if human rights are to remain plausible as an ideal of minimal global justice. Moreover, this chapter makes it clear that the book will also discuss what may be the most important ‘common challenges’ to human rights, the challenges of relativism and of political abuse of human rights. These challenges are prominent in currently important debates, with which many readers will be familiar, about the end/future of human rights.