This chapter considers the challenge of global inequality: Can one be sincerely committed to human rights, with their outspoken idea of the equality of all human beings, in a world of great inequalities, and where many of these inequalities are structurally engendered? Specifically, the chapter argues that a world order of largely sovereign states is very likely to produce structural inequalities of protection between countries in the sense of people not receiving the same protection of an important interest if they are in need of the same protection. Can one, then, in good faith be committed (as many people are) to both such a world order and to human rights? It is argued that the commitment to a global order of largely sovereign states may, for lack of good alternatives, indeed be hard to give up. Accordingly, in cases where such a world order does not allow for equal protection, such protection may be abandoned, while there can still be a sincere commitment to human rights. But the reasons for abandoning equal protection must be very good indeed, and the scope for doing so without falling out with human rights will be quite narrow.