Chapter 9 explores challenges for TBLT as innovation. The chapter considers the theoretical arguments for and against both interactionist/constructivist pedagogical approaches and TBLT, concluding that there are on-going issues that TBLT needs to address. The chapter goes on to look at the challenges for TBLT from the teacher’s perspective and considers what both the theoretical and the practical challenges mean for those who wish, as theorists, researchers and/or practitioners, to advance the cause of TBLT. The chapter argues that it is important, first, to acknowledge the wider (and ever-increasing) range of research into aspects of TBLT that is happening in different contexts across the world and that underscores the potential efficacy of the approach. It is important also to acknowledge the vital interface that must exist between TBLT in theory and research and TBLT in practice. It is proposed that, ultimately, essential components for the successful implementation of TBLT in real classrooms are teacher education initiatives, whether for beginner (pre-service) teachers or for more experienced (in-service) teachers, that can introduce practitioners to TBLT in theory and support them as they attempt to put TBLT into practice.