Chapter One presents a theoretical framework incorporating intersectionality, media infrastructures, political economy, and sociopolitical contexts within which users face online hate, including violence, discrimination, abuse, dehumanising and inciting speech. Eschewing presentism and technocentrism, this framework problematises binary oppositions between online and offline and pays close attention to national histories of discrimination and violence. We outline our qualitative research methods that are informed by contexts of trauma and conflict, advocating deep listening to the affective experiences and conscientisation processes of interviewees. The chapter engages with conceptual and definitional work on dangerous, extreme and hate speech. Drawing on the rich theoretical and empirical literature addressing hate against the disabled, LGBTQIA, Black people, Dalits and Muslims, the chapter proposes an inclusive definition of online hate speech and a typology for understanding the complex ecology of online discrimination. The typology outlines types of hateful content, types of perpetrators and types of recipients.