ABSTRACT

Chapter six connects the theoretical and empirical literature back to our findings about the historical and political roots of online hate. We explain that hateful communication on social media is by and large systematic, orchestrated and politically motivated rather than random, casual and individualised. It cannot be separated from the discrimination, dehumanisation, stereotyping, abuse, incitement, threat and actual violence happening at a global scale or understood through a lens of technological affordances and without attention to specific socio-political and historical contexts. It is precisely these historicised, intersectional and infrastructural contexts that inform the ways which online and offline worlds are produced and inter-related. The chapter returns to our typology of online hate to better pin down the hierarchical and intersectional ways in which violence and discrimination are perpetrated by and targeted towards particular groups and identities. The chapter also outlines recommendations for social media companies, civil society groups and governments committed to addressing the destructive intersection of historical discrimination, prejudice and online hate.