This chapter reflects on the question of “how critical” the proposed notion of “critical self-formation” really is and can be. The self is conceived as something that is neither completely determined by neurological processes nor external influences, but rather as a relational being that with the help of technologies such as fMRI can critically regulate its behavior by virtue of longer-term goals and ideals and form a more attractive self. But how is critical self-formation possible if the pursued goals and ideals that enable that critical relation are greatly influenced by society? How is it possible from an active externalist view to critically relate to our self-formation? Are we still free to relate to and shape our mind and self, if that self is inherently embedded in socio-institutional mechanisms and structures? It is pointed out that critical self-formation comes in different degrees and is at least possible on different levels. However, it needs to be facilitated by creating favorable conditions, which cannot only be done by individuals, but should also be embedded at a societal level.