By 1939, Swedish foreign policy had returned to its traditional neutrality. It was not an easy good-bye from the ideals of collective security and took several years and many debates in the Riksdag, but finally it was the only realistic option left for Stockholm when Hitler attacked Poland. For very different reasons Japan, too, found itself on the “neutral end” of international politics. Alienated by German actions several times, Tokyo did not side with Berlin in its European crimes but remained non-belligerent, with the single focus on bringing the “Chinese affair” to a satisfactory end. But that also proved illusory, despite the successful conclusion of a neutrality pact with Stalin, in early 1941. For Swedish–Japanese relations the international turmoil meant a political relaxation but that was mainly due to the disappearing of Japan from Swedish perception. With the exception of the diplomatic and business communities, politics and civil society were now mainly occupied with European affairs, and not with the occurrences in the Far East. Even keeping commerce alive became increasingly difficult for Sweden’s new envoy to Japan, who found himself struggling for the interests of the Swedish business community and the maintenance of direct diplomatic contacts to Tokyo.