This chapter builds on the previous two chapters in examining the various ways in which urban commons have been protected and managed in the past, as a basis for considering how systems can be adapted to better protect and enhance the use value of urban commons for the future. This chapter demonstrates that the protection and management of urban commons has centred on property rights, grounded in their historical function as natural resources for community use. It goes on to reveal the limitations of this approach for land that is now largely used for recreational rather than agricultural purposes, and the impact of governance structures on community notions of belonging, ownership and identity. Ultimately, this chapter calls for a shift away from the governance of commons based on property rights and statutory entitlements, towards a system centred on the identification and promotion of ecosystem services, which prioritises the benefits our urban commons provide for local communities.