Structurally unequal access to material resources and means of livelihood has an impact on people’s opportunities to flourish and experience lives they have a reason to value. We examine this as a driver of injustice, particularly in relation to how it shapes the differential access to, and exposure to impacts of, various urban sustainability interventions, such as new green spaces, bicycle lanes or organic food cooperatives. We show how accessible and just urban sustainability is challenged by material inequalities both through sustainability’s direct links to economic power and through indirect links that have to do with citizen rights and participation in public dialogue. We analyze these dynamics through two core issues: (i) low-wage jobs and low incomes and (ii) unaffordable housing. We further provide some examples of already existing policy approaches that could address material and livelihood inequalities, especially in the context of urban sustainability.