This chapter illuminates the complexity in the Chinese context in terms of three different perspectives that are salient to understanding Chinese women. The first highlights the experiences of Chinese women given the historical background and the decades of Party-led modernization. The second takes an original view in comparing Western and Chinese research on women. The third perspective highlights gender concepts in China that involve Western influences on Chinese gender discourse. The chapter creates fertile ground for subsequent discussions by showing major aspects of the complex Chinese context relevant to the study of women, thus opening the door to subsequent research on Chinese women in the organizational context.