This chapter covers environmental effects. Environmental trade-off effects occur when social and economic progress unintentionally contributes to environmental degradation. This chapter covers three kinds of environmental effects: carbon surge effects, biodiversity decline effects, and animal welfare reduction effects. Carbon surge effects occur when the external intervention creates social-economic development, but CO2 emissions also rise fast. Biodiversity decline effects occur when the external intervention leads to social-economic benefits but reduces biodiversity, often through the intensification of agricultural industries. Animal welfare reduction effects occur when the international support stimulates social and economic development, but this reduces animal welfare, for instance, through the promotion of the bio industry and battery cages.