The aesthetic routine of feature film adaptations therefore constitutes a norm. The relationship to a literary text is not always overt in media art appropriations, so spotting the reference, the cues, can be tricky. Some artworks openly claim a link to a work of literature, yet their complicated form might nevertheless motivate the viewer to revisit the artworks and the source texts multiple times to gain an idea of just what is happening. The concept of adaptation as appropriation allows consideration of references ruled out by Hutcheon's and Sanders's definitions. Robert Stam adapts the established Poststructuralist concept of intertextuality to theorize the 'palimpsestous' relationship between an audiovisual adaptation and a literary text. This chapter links the writings of the Russian Formalists on the matter of adaptation in silent cinema to perspectives from contemporary adaptation studies. It revisits some previously introduced concepts, such as intertextuality, dialogism, intermediality, and transcription.