Numerous scholars have seen civil society as an essential element in the fabric of society. Starting in antiquity, Aristotle, under the term ‘political community’, characterized it by a shared set of norms and ethos, in which free and equal citizens lived under the rule of law. The Publish What You Pay and the following Extractive Industries' Transparency Initiative cases again illustrates the critical role of civic engagement and the industrious campaigning of CSOs, this time against corruption. As the main generators of revenue to the government of Angola, it argued, the international oil industry and financial sector needed to acknowledge their complicity, change their business practices, and create new standards of transparency. Following the report on corruption and accountability, Global Witness proceeded to organize stronger civic power through the Publish What You Pay Campaign (PWYP) run by a campaign organisation with the same name, founded in June 2002.