DOI link for Conclusions
This chapter summarises the mutual relations between scientific collaboration and the geography of science. It then looks to the future of scientific collaboration and its possible impact on the spatial features of research and scholarship. The spatial location of research infrastructure, higher education institutions, and individual scholars defines possible nodes of scientific collaboration networks. The smart approach towards scientific collaboration policy is necessary for at least two reasons: the horizontal nature of scientific collaboration policies, and the variety of levels at which science policies can be designed and implemented. A responsible policy approach to scientific collaboration should consider not only the benefits from collaboration but also its associated costs. By and large, both benefits and costs increase with an expanding collaboration range, be it geographical distance, the number of scholars, the variety of scientific disciplines, or the cultural and organisational diversification of research teams. The chapter concludes with thoughts on science policy challenges in the collaborative turn era.