In developed economies since the 1970s there has been an identifiable change in the organization of production and labour process. Post-Fordism is strongly implicated in the decline of union densities and influence in most developed countries, because its features have eroded established areas of union strength, undermined traditional forms of workplace organization and made it more difficult for unions to attract and retain members. This chapter argues that fundamental changes in the international economy at this time prompted firms to change from 'Fordist' mass production, characteristic of the middle decades of the twentieth century, to 'post-Fordist' or 'flexible specialization' forms of production. Explanations for the crisis of labour movements in developed economies typically agree that post-Fordist transformations in production and labour process are crucial. Contrary to common perceptions about post-Fordist transformations promoting union moderation, even timidity, this study found union militancy was encouraged by the ever-greater need of employers for production-as-usual.