ABSTRACT

Online hate does not take place in a vacuum. On the contrary, exposure to online hate material has significance for young people’s lives. This chapter reviews and analyses personal victimisation and how online hate is associated with trust and subjective wellbeing (SWB). In addition, we evaluate how exposure to hate varies by type of material between countries. Findings based on our cross-national data show that those who have been victimised by online hate or crime report lower levels of subjective wellbeing than those who have not had such experiences. Those who have been victimised by online hate also report lower levels of trust towards others than those who have not. Victimisation also tends to have a negative impact on social relations. Finally, those who use the Internet frequently are most likely to be victimised. Variance among these are discussed on the basis of cultural differences. Among young online users in four countries, personal victimisation by online hate material is a relatively common phenomenon and, as one might expect, carries various negative consequences.