ABSTRACT

The online setting has evolved a great deal, bringing significant changes to how content is created and who is able to see it. These changes have enabled higher visibility, new expressional tools, and a greater potential for significant impacts through created content. This evolution has resulted in a transformation of the stage upon which hate content is experienced through broadening the boundaries of familiar mechanisms. Online, identity is more easily reinforced, both in terms of self-motivation and external environmental factors. Risk is difficult to eliminate due to both the quantity of content and the ease of access to others through social media platforms. The hate context present today can be visualised in a layered form, built upon past and still active forms of interest groups and online dynamics. Furthermore, the dynamics of how the online environment relates to hate content creators and their expressional capability comes together in a new framework termed the “Identity Bubble Reinforcement” model. Here individual characteristics, motivations and viewpoints relating to online hate come together with the reactionary online environment as it exists today, resulting in a new perspective on the prevalent risks of online hate.