This chapter discusses the health impact caused by earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, extreme temperature events, cyclones, droughts and famines. The human health impact of natural disasters varies according to the risk factors associated with the specific hazards, exposure and community vulnerabilities. The health impact of a tsunami is similar to that of a flash flood, which will be discussed in a later section. The majority of the health impacts of an earthquake stem from the collapse of buildings and infrastructure. A volcanic eruption is the process which transports magma and/or gases from the central core of the earth to the surface. Tropical cyclones may bring heavy rain, strong winds or even large storm surges. Landed tropical cyclones can also generate tornadoes that may bring further health and socio-economic risks to the community. The health impact of floods is complex and difficult to generalise across contexts. The impact of a drought is dependent on the context and underlying population vulnerability.