Two forms of bias Chapter 1 noted the criticisms levelled at the George W. Bush administration for its use of evidence to support the decision to invade Iraq in 2003. Yet the controversy over the war was just one example of the accusations faced over evidence manipulation. The Bush administration was also accused of being ‘anti-science’ in general, with critics arguing that it routinely ignored evidence that did not align with its ideological positions or that it deliberately invented or manipulated scientific evidence to suit political goals (cf. Duncan 2007; Mooney 2006). This led, at the time, for the non-profit Union of Concerned Scientists to state: ‘There is a well-established pattern of suppression and distortion of scientific findings’, concluding that the administration was manipulating science to ‘an unprecedented degree’ (2004, p. 28).