This chapter presents a framework for analysing grassroots innovation movements in South America, India and Europe from historical and comparative perspectives. Grassroots innovation movements are informal phenomena that are mainly based in bottom-up initiatives that include different network architectures and a broad diversity of social actors, including non-governmental organisations (NGOs), social movements and cooperatives. A central element of grassroots innovation movements is their focus on knowledge and technology production as a means to explore alternative scenarios of social change. Grassroots innovation movements can be regarded as initiators or advocates of alternative pathways of socio-technical development. The chapter analyses how different framings and interpretations of innovation, social inclusion and participation are negotiated and contested, and what spaces are opened up through different strategies in order to realize their activities and forge alternative pathways. It focuses on the STEPS pathways approach when considering the consequences of grassroots innovation movements.