Timon of Athens is about friendship. Before he is betrayed, Timon displays all the generosity of friendship, but none of its intimacy. Paul Millet argues that "Homeric 'friendship' appears as a system of calculated cooperation not necessarily accompanied by any feelings of affection. "Christopher Gill's summary of this approach is that modern idea of friendship is based upon the idea that: Behind the social self, the bearer of roles and participant in communal action, there is another, deeper and more private self. William Empson identifies just a possibility of friendship among unequals in Timon when he comments on the competing meanings of the word "dog" in the play. Apemantus mainly uses the word to describe a "flatterer," as when he calls the courtiers dogs. Timon shows the limit of friendship understood only as reciprocity.