The introductory paragraphs of this book began with a kind of “doomsday” scenario for energy crops, in which the world’s remaining forests were under peril, greenhouse gas emissions would soar and vulnerable people would be forced off their land. Hopefully, the real-world examples, emerging technologies and policy options presented in this book have demonstrated that a different future is possible for energy cropping. We must remain vigilant in protecting important environmental and social values against the threat of unsustainable forms of energy cropping. However, there is also great potential to deliver a future in which energy crops play an important role in meeting the world’s energy needs, combating climate change, providing livelihood options for local communities and restoring ecosystem functions on degraded land.