Ivan the Terrible is one of the prime subjects for writers of ‘alternative history’ in Russia, a line of revisionist thinking that contests the veracity of established historiography. As a ‘misrecognised’ ruler with a record of historical documentation that leaves ample room for creative interpretation of the facts, Ivan has attracted the attention of various marginal groups who use his memory to propose alternative types of governance for contemporary Russia. This chapter demonstrates how the memory of Ivan has proved to be the historical framework of choice for those at the extremes of the political spectrum who seek to challenge existing state structures. First providing an overview of the historical development of the memory, including its representation in the arts and popular culture, it analyses the two groups who have most prominently adopted the memory of Ivan: Orthodox fundamentalist patriotic groups who seek to canonize Ivan and promote a restoration of the Russian monarchy; and, the ultranationalist circles who utilise Ivan to formulate a radical political agenda that, if implemented, would undermine existing state structures. Subsequently, the chapter presents analyses of the TV series Ivan the Terrible (2009), the feature film Tsar (2009), and an episode of the talk show The Trial of Time (2010).