This entry discusses the numerous effects of a positive safety climate on valued safety outcomes including safety knowledge, motivation, the occurrence of non-fatal occupational accidents and injuries, among others. Several conceptualisations of safety climate are described and the multiple facets of a positive safety climate (i.e. pro-safety management values, safety communication, comprehensive safety training, and robust safety systems) are outlined. Furthermore, we discuss various approaches to the measurement of safety climate. In particular, this area focuses on universal versus industry-specific approaches to existing measures, the usage of the referent-shift versus direct consensus approach, and response scale choice. Additionally, we expand from a focus on safety climate level/direction (i.e. positive or poor) to also include an assessment of safety climate strength (i.e. the amount of consensus regarding an organisation’s safety climate). Finally, we review empirical research highlighting the practical importance of safety-conscious leaders in promoting a pro-safety climate and facilitating subsequent positive safety outcome for their employees.