Competence beliefs are the perceptions one has about their ability to achieve in a particular domain or task. These beliefs underpin motivated behaviour because they provide information about whether a particular task is a good use of effort based on our perceptions about the level of ability needed to succeed on the task. Competence beliefs are conceptualised and operationalised in different ways, including self-esteem, self-concept, self-efficacy, and expectancies. A common thread connecting these different concepts, which fall under the umbrella of competence beliefs, is that they capture a person’s beliefs about their abilities and predict subsequent motivation and achievement. Research on competence beliefs has investigated how competence beliefs are developed, how the beliefs change over time, and interventions to increase students’ competence beliefs. Taken together, research shows that competence beliefs are dynamic and influenced by different social and personal factors and that educators can play a role in promoting positive competence beliefs.