Victim impact statements are written or oral statements that detail the impact of a defendant’s crime on the victim(s) or the victim’s surviving family. Specifically, victims and their family and friends are permitted to testify in both capital and non-capital trials about the harm experienced as a result of the crime. In this chapter, we discuss the use of such statements in capital and non-capital cases, the historical and legal context of victim impact statements, the legal discourse surrounding the introduction of victim impact statements, and the current psycho-legal research on the influence of victim impact statements on capital juries. Specific emphasis is placed on the role of emotionality and perceived social status in assessing victim impact statements. Research exploring the use of victim impact statements in sexual abuse cases is also discussed. Finally, potential areas for further exploration are identified, such as the use of execution impact statements by defendants, present limitations to victim impact statement research, and policy implications are discussed.