Economic stress can be defined as the result of potential work-related stressors for individuals and their families that stem from objective and subjective elements of personal economic circumstances, including unemployment, underemployment, and job insecurity. Unemployment is the involuntary loss of paid employment, while underemployment can be defined as working in a job that does not match one’s full working knowledge, skills or abilities. Underemployment can occur when one works fewer hours than desired, has skills that are underutilized, or income is reduced. Job insecurity involves an employee’s perceived instability of future employment (e.g. worry over job loss). As long-term job security becomes less prevalent in the labour market, employees will continue to struggle with job insecurity. Three theories that help explain some of the adverse effects of economic stress are the Conservation of Resources theory, Latent Deprivation Theory , and the Vitamin Model. The consequences of economic stress span from home to the workplace, and include attitudinal, physical and mental health, job, and organizational effects.