Sexual violence victimisation is a pressing concern across public and private sectors, and is an important conversation in both the political and legal spheres given evidence of poor biopsychosocial outcomes. Although historical definitions of sexual violence focussed on forcible penetration, the scientific literature now views it as an umbrella term encompassing a broader array of behaviours, including lewd, unwanted comments and technology-facilitated sexual offending behaviour. However, the measurement of sexual victimisation experiences has remained largely unchanged, and research shows that the most commonly used measure has established good reliability. Prevalence estimates have remained high across a variety of settings since the emergence of systematised surveys collecting data on sexual violence, and challenges at the policy level remain despite concerted efforts to combat this pervasive and pernicious public health concern. Particularly in the United States, the organisation of statutes on the evaluation and processing of criminal offenses has led to difficulties with equitable adjudication of these behaviours. Notably, there is greater discourse surrounding sexual violence in occupational and other contexts, such as workplaces and institutions of higher learning. These discussions have led to the development of policy directives to address the distinct nature of sexual violence experiences in these settings. Although a review of the risk factors for the perpetration of sexual violence is beyond the scope of this entry, research on risk factors associated with victimisation has demonstrated increased vulnerability of members of particular sub-groups (e.g. incarcerated persons, individuals diagnosed with a major mental disorder), suggesting that members of these groups experience victimisation at higher rates than the general population. Furthermore, although intervention efforts to reduce the prevalence of sexual violence over the past three decades have emerged, findings have demonstrated mixed effectiveness in reducing rates of victimisation. Of note, post-victimisation intervention efforts such as evidence-based psychotherapy and victim-centered evidence collection programmes have demonstrated preliminary efficacy. Programme evaluations of prevention- and education-based strategies have demonstrated modest impacts on outcomes related to sexual victimisation in adulthood, with strongest support for programmes directed at children or adolescents. Despite increased awareness of the public health concerns resulting from sexual violence, further research is needed to understand factors that contribute to victimisation and to develop effective initiatives that target reduction and prevention.