Restorative justice in the field of education is a continuum of relationship-building proactive and reactive responses to violations of school rules and harm to the school community which are designed to rebuild and restore justice, repair harm, and modify behaviour. It is based on practices used by native cultures of the Pacific and was implemented in criminal justice courts, and has been adapted to school discipline models since the early 1990s. Restorative justice is based upon the idea that violations of rules cause harm to relationships. The offender must repair the harm to the relationship in order for justice to be restored. The repair required is determined with the offender, victim, and stakeholders. When the offender acknowledges harm done by his or her actions and completes the repair determined by the community, he or she can then be re-established in the school community. This is in contrast to the typical retributive model of discipline, in which justice is considered to be restored by the offender being punished. The use of restorative justice in schools shows potential to decrease out-of-school suspensions and expulsions, and increase teacher morale.