The arrival of Arab armies in the Iberian Peninsula in 711 marked the beginning of a new era in the history of Iberia. The conquered land, known as al-Andalus, changed over time, and the border shifted southwards with the expansion of Christian-controlled territory. Al-Andalus flourished under Islamic rule until 1492, when the last Muslim kingdom, Granada, was conquered by King Ferdinand of Aragón and Queen Isabella of Castile. However, for the next ten years Muslims were free to practise Islam, as agreed by Isabella and Ferdinand with Boabdil, the last Muslim king. Obliged to convert in 1502, the Muslim conversos in the Iberian Peninsula continued to practise Islam in secret, as evidenced by court documents of the Inquisition, and the Alpujarras rebellion (1568–71). During periods of persecution Muslim women were tasked with the important role of defending the culture and religion of their community. The history of these Muslim women from 711 to 1492, and afterwards, is quite complex. Three periods should be considered: the foundation of the community (eighth–ninth centuries), the core period (tenth–15th centuries), and the time after the forced conversion to Christianity, when conversa women, known as moriscas, were helping to keep Muslim religion alive within the community. By the end of the 11th century, the Muslims continued living in the conquered land, so the study of Muslim women must consider the differences between those living in al-Andalus and those living in the northern kingdoms. Finally, their shared social and economic conditions made Muslim women different, no matter where or when they lived.