Contemporary perspectives of regulation highlight the dynamic interplay between self and two social forms of regulation (co- and socially shared regulation). Both self and social regulation share some foundational features; at its core, regulation is a process that is engaged when learners perceive a need to deliberately intervene and manage aspects of their learning. Theoretically grounded in the sociocultural theory of learning, the dynamics between self and socially shared regulation is enabled or mediated through co-regulation affordances and constraint. Co-regulation occurs when regulation is temporarily redirected or shaped to fine-tune individual learners’ (self) or groups’ (shared) cognition, behavior, motivation, and emotions. The dynamics between self-, co-, and socially shared regulation can be observed as groups of learners engage in key metacognitive processes: planning, strategy experimentation, and monitoring and adapting. The growing research in the field is currently challenged in two main ways: (a) examining and contextualizing the co-emergence of self and social modes regulation, and (b) examining why the use of those different modes matter.