The primary purpose of a norm-referenced test is to compare a test-taker’s performance with the performance of his or her peers. Scores from norm-referenced tests have a variety of potential uses, including placing a student in a reading group of similarly able peers or determining readiness for a gifted education programme. To support those uses, norm-referenced tests usually produce metrics that facilitate comparison with a reference group, such as percentiles. This entry details norm-referenced assessments – their purposes, methods for developing them, and valid interpretations. Criterion-referenced tests are also described briefly, because some of the distinguishing features of norm-referenced tests are best appreciated when contrasted with their criterion-referenced counterparts.