This entry is focused on how different degrees of participation in classroom talk influence student achievement. The approach is based on sociocultural theory claiming that thinking, learning, and speaking are interconnected phenomena. A number of research studies have demonstrated that participation in classroom talk positively affects learning. Students who talk more learn more. However, not all students are equally engaged in classroom talk; some students are vocal and others stay silent. A student’s willingness to talk is influenced by school achievement, socioeconomic status, gender, psychological traits, and position among peers. Students usually strive for success at school, and they often believe that only those individuals who know the correct answer to a question can take part. As a result of this belief, some students try to assert their voices in classroom discussions very forcefully while others try to remain silent and unnoticed. It is a challenge for teachers to invite all students in the classroom to participate in classroom conversations equally. However, research studies have shown that it is possible, and that the more students are engaged, the higher the quality of classroom discussion.