There has long been an interest in understanding how the non-curricular aspects of the school environment, or school climate, influence academic outcomes. School climate has been conceptualised both broadly to encompass multiple aspects of the school social and physical environment and more narrowly to focus only on student engagement. There is evidence for the importance of student engagement for student academic outcomes, with student perceptions of increased engagement reflecting improved teaching and academic self-concept. Further, student perceptions of safety and the school environment have been associated with aggressive behaviour and psychological well-being. The association between school climate and student outcomes is grounded in several psychological, sociological, and criminological theories including the bioecological model, social-cognitive theory, social control theory, social disorganisation theory, and Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. School climate is primarily measured using surveys of students’ perception of their school environment, but more work is needed to understand the perspective of diverse stakeholders (e.g., parents, school staff) as well as assess a broader array of school climate constructs. Additionally, research suggests the importance of observations of classroom and non-classroom areas in understanding how school climate relates to students’ academic and behavioural outcomes. There are known gender, developmental, and racial/ethnic differences in perceptions of school climate with boys and students of colour having less positive perceptions. The majority of research on school climate has been conducted in developed countries, particularly the United States, with work in developing countries focused on creating schools in the midst of challenging circumstances. Evidence-based interventions exist to improve school climate, primarily through the coordinated implementation of activities to support students’ psychosocial well-being.