This article aims to provide an understanding of problem analysis, programme evaluation, and how they can be connected. Based on a review of existing literature, the definitions of related key concepts are presented including programme, problem, problem analysis, and programme evaluation. The review also identifies a list of key elements involved in these processes, which have been summarised into the theory of change. Based on the review, four key elements, namely: problem, goal, focus and scope of efforts, and types of evaluation are used as the lens to illustrate examples about how problem analysis and programme evaluation are connected. These examples are meant to offer insights into programme development, implementation, and evaluation in different contexts including primary, secondary, and higher education. The present article reflects the knowledge and inspires various stakeholders in their programmes or research studies, and therefore can provide implications for the readers including researchers, instructors, learners, administrators, and policymakers.