Questioning is an important strategy for real-time assessment of student learning in all disciplines and at all instructional levels, pre-school through graduate education. This universal, timeless process comprises three key components: questions, student responses, and feedback. While questions initiate the process, it is the patterns of interaction following the posing of questions that ultimately determine their effectiveness. Three key issues regulate these patterns. What procedures and/or structures govern who will answer? How much time are students afforded to process questions and formulate their responses? How do teachers and peers react to a student response? Related to each of these issues is the question of whether teachers are developing students’ skills and dispositions, thereby enabling them to be effective participants in the questioning process.